4. Who Governs What?
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4. To map alternative forms of governance in urban areas and their connections to the State in order to understand "who governs what?". This line of research aims at analyzing patterns of governance that are not necessarily controlled by the State and its agencies. It aims at unpacking two apparently contradictory descriptions of current Brazilian governance: on the one hand, as a case where policy implementation is controlled either by private or patrimonial interests; on the other hand, as an outstanding case of flourishing experiences on civic activism.
 
Taken in isolation, neither fully describes urban governance patterns. Moreover, evidences show that in any case connections to the State and its agencies are key to understand governance. Three subprojects will address this research puzzle:
 
4.1. the patterns of governance in urban policies, by means of the identification and comparison of different combinations of State agencies and legal as well as illegal groups within civil society in urban policies in large metropolis, coordinated by Eduardo Marques in collaboration with Patrick Le Galés (Fondation Nationales de Sciences Politiques), Mike Raco (University College of London), Claire Colomb (University College of London), Alberta Andreoti (University of Milano-Bicocca), Ursula Peres (EACH/USP) and Vicente Ugalde (Colegio de Mexico).
 
4.2. the patterns of governance in metropolitan city''s periphery, by analyzing the connections between the so-called "marginal groups" and State policies, social organizations, and organized crime, coordinated by Gabriel Feltran;
 
4.3. the composition of Brazilian civil society policy-councils, in order to understand who is represented in them and the content of the decisions they made, coordinated by Adrian Gurza Lavalle in collaboration with Elisa Reis (Federal University of Rio de Janeiro) and Ernesto Isunza Veras (CIESAS, Mexico).